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Conspiracy Theories and Antisemitism: Unveiling Trends Post-October 7th


In the aftermath of Hamas’s violent assault on Israel on October 7, 2023, and the ensuing conflict, global antisemitism surged dramatically. The Israeli Diaspora Office’s report revealed a 235% increase in antisemitic events in 2023 compared to 2022, with significant incidents reported in the U.S. and Europe. Notably, there was a 33% rise in violent antisemitic events, of which 48% were directly linked to the Israel-Hamas conflict. This highlights the severity of the issue, emphasizing the significant impact of the conflict on the increase in violent antisemitic incidents. 

This study delves into the far-right’s exploitation of social media, examining the proliferation of antisemitic conspiracy theories and their transition from alternative to mainstream platforms. Three key themes are explored: the New World Order conspiracy, Holocaust and October 7th denial, and explicit or implicit calls for violence against Jewish people. The research underscores the dangerous nature of these conspiracy theories, particularly as they can incite real-world violence against targeted communities.

Recognizing the unique power of conspiracy theories to motivate action, the paper emphasizes the critical role of policymakers and law enforcement in monitoring and countering these narratives in the digital era.


On October 7, 2023, Hamas, a Palestinian terrorist organization that calls for the destruction of Israel, launched a violent attack against Israel. Hamas directed its members to target Israeli civilians, including women and children, resulting in devastating consequences: the death of over 1,400 Israelis, the kidnapping of 250 individuals into Gaza, with 134 still held hostage, and over 12,900 injured in Israel. On that same day, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu declared war on Hamas. At the time of writing this article, the war is still ongoing. 

Unsurprisingly, antisemitism[1] surged dramatically across the globe following October 7th and the subsequent war, as has occurred in every military campaign Israel is involved in. As per a report conducted by the Israeli Diaspora Office, titled The Antisemitic Situation, the year 2023 concluded with a 235% increase in antisemitic events compared to 2022. Of these, 43% occurred in the US, and 35% took place in Europe. Additionally, there was a 33% rise in violent antisemitic events in 2023 compared to the previous year, with 48% attributed to the Israel-Hamas conflict. Germany experienced a 320% surge, while Britain reported its highest number of antisemitic events since recording began in 1984, following the events of October 7. In the online space, there was a staggering 1,000% increase in antisemitic posts.[2]  

This research focuses on the proliferation of antisemitic conspiracy theories through far-right social media platforms and underscores the potential danger as these theories transition from alternative platforms to mainstream ones, potentially inciting violence against Jewish people in the real-world. Post October 7th, we have witnessed an increasing number of violent attacks toward Jweish individuals. For example in December 2023, a Jewish man in Brooklyn was attacked outside of his home.[3] Another Jewish man was attacked on his way to his synagogue in Los Angeles, CA, in the same month, leaving his head bloodied from the attack.[4]

While acknowledging the existence of antisemitism on both the far-right and far-left spectrums, this paper specifically concentrates on antisemitism originating from the extreme right. Our monitoring, conducted from mid-October 2023 (following the publication of our initial report, Countering Hate in the Digital Age: Extremist Responses to the Israel-Hamas War) until mid-January 2024, sheds light on the frequency with which far-right actors propagate these conspiracy theories. The research highlights the perilous nature of the ideology as it seeps from alternative platforms into mainstream ones, including X (formerly Twitter). Our findings are organized into three distinct trends:

  1. The New World Order conspiracy theory
  • A. New World Order Conspiracy Goes Mainstream in Media
  • B. New World Order Conspiracy and Higher Education
  1. Holocaust and October 7th denial, and 
  2. Calls for Violence against Jewish People

Conspiracy Theories

Far-right conspiracy theories are based in paranoia and promote narratives about the fight between the far-right’s perception of good and evil.[5] Antisemitism, a conspiracy theory about how the world works, encompasses prejudice, discrimination, and/or hatred directed towards Jews solely due to their Jewish identity.[6] Often described as the oldest form of hatred, it is rooted in stereotypes and misconceptions about Jewish people. Initially based in religious hatred, antisemitism evolved in the 19th century when Wilhelm Marr, a German, coined the term to signify hatred against Jews based on their race. In contemporary times, antisemitism takes various forms, yet persistent damaging stereotypes surrounding Jewish power and control endure.[7]

This paper looks at the manifestations of two antisemitic conspiracy theories. The first is The New World Order, a conspiracy that relies on the claim that there is a secret group attempting to gain control of the world by creating a global, totalitarian government.[8] The second is the Holocaust denial, aimed at distorting and denying the well-documented systematic murder of six million people, despite overwhelming evidence.[9] Since Hamas’s atrocities on October 7th, we have witnessed the growth of a new conspiracy theory: October 7th denial. 

Far-right users will create fear, blaming Jews and Western leaders for the problems of the world in order to destroy the social order and foster instabilityThese conspiracy theories, online and in real life, surge as conflict in the Middle East continues and should raise serious concern for the international security apparatus. Conspiracy theories have an unusual power to motivate people to action. They are particularly able to do so if they can point to specific people, places or institutions as being behind the conspiracies in question. This practice gives extremists who strongly believe such theories places to explore or victims to target.[10] Conspiracy theories that identify an enemy, including the New World Order conspiracy theory and antisemitism, pose real-world danger, particularly because there are numerous posts on social media that call for violence to defeat the perceived enemy.[11]

I. New World Order

Extremist groups on the far-right are exploiting the ongoing conflict to further their antisemitic agenda. Anti-Jewish sentiments are deeply ingrained in many far-right ideologies, particularly within white supremacist movements. A prevalent conspiracy theory among far-right circles, the New World Order, alleges the existence of a covert group aiming to establish a global totalitarian government.[12] This theory, rooted in American conspiracy culture, serves as an antisemitic dog whistle,[13] portraying Jews as being loyal to a worldwide order that supposedly advances their control.[14]

Debates surrounding Jewish influence in global governance, foreign affairs, banking systems, media, and higher education  have gained momentum. The amplification of these discussions is fueled by the dissemination of such narratives in rallies and various alternative communication channels. Moreover, this narrative extends beyond alternative platforms, infiltrating mainstream spaces like Twitter, as outlined in the following report

On several occasions following October 7th, age-old antisemitic tropes about Jewish power have been observed at anti-Israel rallies.[15] Signs held by protestors shared antisemitic messages about Jewish or Zionist control over media and government. 

(London anti-Israel Protest, February 3, 2024)

This rhetoric is also seen on clothing, exemplified by a woman at a London anti-Israel protest wearing a shirt that stated: “Stop the Zionist New World Order.” 

(London anti-Israel Protest, November 11, 2023)

New World Order Conspiracy Goes Mainstream in Media

While it is probable that far-left organizations primarily orchestrated the protest in London, participants incorporated far-right conspiracy theories into the messaging. This serves as a notable example of the intersection between anti-Israel and anti-Zionist protesters and far-right ideology, a phenomenon readily observable across various social media platforms.

The antisemitic propaganda traditionally linked to the extreme right, often centered on the classic hatred of Jewish people rooted in racism and white supremacy, has now become increasingly prevalent in mainstream social media within a Zionist context. Unlike the typical focus on the connection between Jewish individuals and Israel (Zionism), these narratives are now permeating broader online discourse. This dangerous phenomenon poses a significant threat, as it fosters the convergence of disparate extremist ideologies and contributes to the spread of harmful stereotypes and prejudices.

A far-right Nazi-era propaganda image is reshared on an antisemitic X account following the Israel-Hamas war showcasing an evil octopus with an Israeli flag encircling the world (X; December 23rd, 2023)[16]
A far-right X user shares a picture showcasing an Israeli flag on an American government building as if the Jewish control the US government (X; December 21st, 2023)

Jewish people are also being blamed for the death of Palestinians in Gaza, and they are being presented as powerful masters, as seen below. 

A post is shared on a far-right Telegram channel with the caption, “Jewish Masters” (Telegram; December 27th, 2023)

Far-right users on X repeatedly post graphs that demonstrate United States politicians’ ties to Israel, whether they are Jewish or not. 

A far-right user on X posts photos of current Biden administration members and states that “this country is ran by Israel”  (X; November 27th, 2023)
A far-right user on X posts photos of Jewish employees at major media companies and states, “here are the Jewish individuals responsible for covering up the Palestinian Holocaust” (X; December 25th, 2023)

New World Order Conspiracy and Higher Education

The conspiracy theories regarding Jewish control have expanded beyond government, media, and banking, now taking center stage in discussions about universities, particularly in the United States. The recent Congressional hearings addressing antisemitism at U.S. universities, including prestigious institutions like Harvard and Penn, have ignited extensive conversations within far-right online communities about the perceived influence and power of Jewish individuals over academia.

Following Hamas’s attack on Israel and the subsequent Israel-Hamas war, antisemitism rose on college campuses across the country.[17] Presidents of Ivy League universities were brought in front of the House Education and Workforce Committee to provide testimony.[18] The presidents received backlash after committee member Representative Stephanik prompted a yes or no question on whether “calling for the genocide of Jews” violated the schools’ codes of conduct.[19]

Following their inability to clearly state that calling for the genocide of Jews is flatly wrong and against school policies, the presidents of Harvard and Penn have resigned. Far-right actors view the congressional hearing’s focus on antisemitism and the resignation of university presidents as evidence that Jews control academia in America. 

A post shared on a far-right Telegram channel questions the focus on antisemitism, perceived to be motivated by Jewish people’s influence, when “white people face the majority of the attacks” (Telegram; December 7th, 2023)
Vincent James, a known conspiracy theorist, makes claims related to the antisemitic Jewish power tope (Telegram; December 9th, 2023)
Vincent James, a known conspiracy theorist, points out the Jewish heritage of Penn’s new board chair (Telegram; December 11th, 2023)

Common antisemitic tropes, including invoking the Rothschild banking family, are used to showcase perceived Jewish power and control over universities.[20]

A post is shared in a popular far-right Telegram channel that says, “The Truth About the Rothschild Coup of the Ivy League Universities” (Telegram; January 2nd, 2024)

II. Holocaust and October 7th Denial

A significant social media campaign, marked by doubt, minimization, and distortion, is actively working to challenge the occurrence of the Hamas attack on Israel on October 7. This campaign spreads despite existing evidence taken directly from Hamas terrorist’s documentation on GoPro cameras.[21]

This campaign echoes Holocaust denial conspiracy theory, which is also found on the far-right. This theory is aimed at distorting and denying the well-documented systematic murder of six million people, despite overwhelming evidence.[22] According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Holocaust denial is used to “reduce perceived public sympathy to Jews, to undermine the legitimacy of the State of Israel, to plant seeds of doubt about Jews and the Holocaust, and to draw attention to particular issues or viewpoints.”[23]

Since the events of October 7th, we have witnessed the growth of a new conspiracy theory – October 7th denial.

A 4chan user has merged Holocaust denial with the denial of October 7th events. He expresses skepticism regarding the reported atrocities committed by Hamas against Israel on October 7th, 2023. The user adds the acronym for “Total Kike Death” (4chan; October 29th, 2023)
A 4chan user refers to Hamas’s attack against Israel using a term associated with Holocaust deniers – “holohoax”[24] (4chan; October 29th, 2023)

Antisemitic content related to October 7th denial hasn’t only been spreading online on alternative platforms, but it has also been leaking onto mainstream platforms such as X (former Twitter). Far-right X users, @DefundIsraelNow and @StopZionistHate, repeatedly post content intended to stoke doubt about Hamas’s massacre,  as seen below. 

A far-right X user posts an infographic of Theodor Herzl wearing a yellow Star of David, surrounded by a graph that exemplifies the conspiracy that Jews fake major attacks titled “The Jewish Method,” seemingly in order to “justify an invasion of the enemy” (X; December 26th, 2023)[25]

As of February 2024, the @DefundIsraelNow X account has been suspended for praising Hitler, an important step that needs to be recognized by every social media platform.

A far-right X user posts a video of Hitler speaking and states that “everything he said still rings true today” (X; February 10th, 2024)
An account on X dedicated to producing fake news propaganda titled “50+ Israel lies in 5 week”, intended to show that the October 7th massacre was exaggerated or did not occur (X; November 14th, 2023)
A 4chan user says that American Jews “made the whole thing up” (4chan; October 29th, 2023)

III. Calls for Violence against Jewish People 

Conspiracy theories possess a unique ability to motivate individuals into action, particularly when they attribute specific people, places, or institutions as the supposed masterminds behind these conspiracies. This tendency provides extremists who fervently embrace such theories with targets to explore or victims to target.[26]

The appeal for violence against Jews is echoed strongly on social networks, manifested both directly and indirectly. We also observed a disturbing celebration of the fact that many Jews were killed in the October 7th massacre.

As examined in our previous policy paper, Countering Hate in the Digital Age: Extremist Responses to the Israel-Hamas War , there is a “significant rise in the use of the antisemitic slogan — ‘Total K*ke Death’ often abbreviated to ‘TKD’ — a slogan usually associated with a neo-Nazi desire to kill all the Jews globally.”[27] Conspiracy theories, such as antisemitism, can lead to violence and these calls for violence are echoed on multiple platforms.[28]

In a thread about the war in Israel, a 4chan user posts an acronym meaning “Total Kike Death,” which is popular amongst far right users (4chan; October 29th, 2023)

In addition to using encrypted language, like  TKD, many far right extremists also explicitly call for the death of Jews, without hiding their intention. The phrase “By any means necessary” was seen at anti-Israel protests and on anti-Israel social media posts following October 7th.[29] Initially, this phrase was used by far-left, anti-Israel activities to express support for Hamas’s massacre on October 7th.[30]  This phrase was quickly picked up by the far-right community online to emphasize their desire to kill Jews.  

“By any means necessary” became a popular phrase in relation to the tactics Hamas used on October 7th, 2023 (4chan; October 29th, 2023)
An image featuring both Jewish and non-Jewish members of Biden’s administration is shared with the caption “Jewish Supremacy,” discussing them in a dehumanizing manner, likening them to demons in an example of online doxing (X; December 31st, 2023)[31]

Some users call for the continuation of violence, establishing a connection between Jews and Israel while calling for the liberation of Palestine. This illustrates the utilization of platforms that serve as a safe haven for far-right ideologies, spreading rhetoric that can be associated with far-left perspectives as well.

A user celebrates Hamas’s rocket barrage on Israel and says “kill kikes.” The post reads: “[LIBERTA! ] The year 2024 begins with a barrage of missiles on Tel Aviv and its surrounding areas, as well as on the settlements surrounding the Gaza Strip, reminding the world that our resistance will not waver. We will not give in. Our land, our blood and our fight for freedom will continue endlessly until Palestine is liberated.” (VKontakte; January 1st, 2024)
Another Telegram user states, “I can’t believe we got rid of the Jews finally… feels like a dream” (Telegram; December 28th, 2023)

Suggestions for harming Israel also included a surge in posts encouraging cyberattacks to bolster Hamas’s tactics.

A post in a popular far-right Telegram channel celebrates a possible hacking of water systems in Israel (Telegram; October 15th, 2023)

Strategic foresight is imperative for these extremists who believe that the Jewish community, perceived as wielding global power, will face a decline. They anticipate this decline will create a power vacuum, which they aim to fill. Their strategy involves organizing their community by joining groups that adhere to far-right ideology. 

A post in a far-right Telegram channel states that the ZOG, or Zionist Occupied Government,[32] will fall and it’s necessary to fill the resulting gap of leadership (X; January 24, 2024) 


A few years ago, the Biden Administration’s National Strategy for Countering Domestic Terrorism warned about the rise of online polarization, frequently fueled by disinformation, misinformation, and perilous conspiracy theories.[33] The online dissemination of extremist beliefs is a red flag, exacerbated by the ease social media platforms facilitate their spread and manipulation of world events. According to the Department of Homeland Security, there were 231 domestic terrorism incidents between 2010 and 2021 and of these, about 35% were classified as racially- or ethnically-motivated and anti-government or anti-authority motivated extremism was the second largest category of incidents.[34] In 2020, former European Union counter-terrorism coordinator Gilles de Kerchove expressed concern about the “potential future rise of new forms of terrorism, rooted in conspiracy theories and technophobia.”[35]

This study examined the social media trends related to the far-right’s response to the Israel-Hamas conflict. It identifies three key themes: the new world order conspiracy theory , Holocaust and October 7th denial, and calls for violence against Jewish people.

The danger lies not only in the existence and dissemination of these theories on extremist platforms but also in their leakage to mainstream social media, like X (formerly Twitter). This accessibility makes these theories available to a vast audience, potentially inciting violence against Jewish people. Calls for violence have been made both explicitly (such as using the term  Total Kike Death), and implicitly (such as using the sentence “by any means necessary”).

As noted in our previous paper, Countering Hate in the Digital Age: Extremist Responses to the Israel-Hamas War, policymakers and law enforcement have a critical role in maintaining vigilance to prevent the proliferation of hate and violence in the digital era. 

In order to address the spread of conspiracy theories, security agencies must remain vigilant and monitor the virtual space. 

[1] Antisemitism is the hatred toward Jewish individuals and/or their property, including accusing Jewish people of being more loyal to Israel than to the interests of their own nations, as well as holding Jews responsible for the actions of Israel. What is antisemitism?. IHRA. (n.d.).

[2] The Diaspora Office and World Zionist Organization, The Antisemitism Situation (Hebrew), 2003,

[3] Crowley, S. (2023, December 9). Jewish man sucker-punched, kicked in antisemitic Brooklyn attack. FOX 5 New York.

[4] SAN ROMÁN, G. (2023, December 11). “despicable act of hate”: Suspect arrested after antisemitic assault in Beverly Hills. Los Angeles Times.

[5] Stenzler-Koblentz, L. (Dr. ), & Chavez, K. (2023, May 23). Trump’s indictment and the weaponization of conspiracy theories by the far-right. ICT.

[6] Rosenberg, Y. (2023, October 31). Why so many people still don’t understand Anti-Semitism. The Atlantic.

[7] Conspiracy theories and right-wing extremism insights and … (n.d.-b). https://home-affairs.

[8] New World Order. ADL. (2017, June 26). Retrieved May 1, 2023, from

[9] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.). Evidence and Documentation of the Holocaust. United States holocaust memorial museum.

[10] How Conspiracy Theories Can Kill, November 14, 2018, ADL, https://www.

[11] The New World Order: The Historical Origins of a dangerous modern conspiracy theory. (2022, May 31). Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. ctec/ctec-publications/new-world-order-historical-origins-dangerous 

[12] New World Order. ADL. (2017, June 26). Retrieved May 1, 2023, from

[13] A dog whistle is the use of coded or suggestive language to appeal to an audience or signal a certain message to a group of people. 

[14]What is the “new world order” conspiracy? VICE. (2022, March 23).

[15] Antisemitism. Southern Poverty Law Center. (n.d.).

[16] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.-b). Nazi-Era Propaganda Poster. United States holocaust memorial museum.

[17] Saric, I. (2023, November 29). 73% of Jewish College students report antisemitism on campus … – axios. Axios.

[18] Rubin, A. (2023, December 7). University leaders hammered after congressional hearing on … – axios. Axios.

[19] Ibid.

[20] The Rothschilds banking theory purports that a cabal of Jewish people led by the Rothschild family secretly controls and influences national and international events in order to advance their personal interests. Rothschilds. Center on Extremism. (n.d.).

[21] Fabian, E. (2023, October 18). GoPro cameras on Hamas gunmen capture how terror group broke into Israel. Times of Israel.

[22] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.). Evidence and Documentation of the Holocaust. United States holocaust memorial museum.

[23] Ibid. 

[24] According to the American Jewish Committee, “the term “Holohoax” is a term commonly used by Holocaust deniers across the political spectrum, who claim the Jewish people exaggerated or made up the Holocaust” and is used widely on social media platforms.” Holohoax: #TranslateHate. AJC. (2023, December 8).

[25] Herzl is known as the father of modern Zionism. Theodor (Binyamin Ze’ev) Herzl. The Jewish Virtual Library. (n.d.).

[26] Koblentz-Stenzler, L., Chavez, K., & Kempler, U. (2023, October). Countering hate in the digital age: Analyzing far-right extremist … International Institute for Counter-Terrorism.

[27]  Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Right-Wing Extremist Terrorism in the United States. You are being redirected… (2023, November 15).

[30] Ibid.

[31] Doxing, or posting someone’s information and, in doing so, meeting specific standards of intent that go to whether the disclosure will lead to criminal conduct such as death, injury or stalking, is used to vilify or cause harm to Jewish Americans or perceived Jewish Americans. Anti-Defamation League. (2021a, January 15).

[32] ZOG or Zionist Occupied Government refers to the idea that Jews control the U.S. government. Anti-Defamation League. (n.d.).

[33] The United States Government. (2021, June 15). Fact sheet: National strategy for countering domestic terrorism. The White House.

[34] Office, U. S. G. A. (2023, March 9). The rising threat of domestic terrorism in the U.S. and federal efforts to combat it. U.S. GAO.

[35] Koblentz-Stenzler, L., Chavez, K., & Kempler, U. (2023, October). Countering hate in the digital age: Analyzing far-right extremist … International Institute for Counter-Terrorism.